ZOOM VIDEO COMMUNICATIONS, INC. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (form 10-Q) – marketscreener.com

 You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on                                          24 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------   Table of Contents Form 10-Q. This discussion contains forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those discussed in the section titled "Risk Factors" and in other parts of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Overview Our mission is to make video communications frictionless and secure. We provide a communications platform that delivers happiness and helps our users express ideas and connect to others. We connect people through our communications platform, which encompasses unified communications, developer, and events solutions. Our platform is chosen by enterprises around the globe because it is reliable; scalable; secure; easy to deploy, use, and manage; provides an attractive return on investment; and integrates with a vast ecosystem of applications and physical spaces. We believe that face-to-face communications build greater empathy and trust. We strive to live up to the trust our customers place in us by delivering a communications solution while prioritizing their privacy and security. Our 22 co-located data centers worldwide and the public cloud enable us to provide both high-quality and high-definition, real-time video to our customers even in low-bandwidth environments. We generate revenue from the sale of subscriptions to our communications platform. Subscription revenue is driven primarily by the number of paid hosts as well as purchases of additional products, including Zoom Rooms, Zoom Video Webinars, Zoom Phone, Zoom Events, and Hardware-as-a-Service ("HaaS") for rooms and phones. A host is any user of our communications platform who initiates a Zoom Meeting and invites one or more participants to join that meeting. We refer to hosts who subscribe to a paid Zoom Meeting plan as "paid hosts." We define a customer as a separate and distinct buying entity, which can be a single paid user or host or an organization of any size (including a distinct unit of an organization) that has multiple paid hosts. Our Basic offering is free and gives hosts access to Zoom Meetings with core features but with the limitation that meetings with more than two endpoints time-out at 40 minutes. Our paid offerings include our Pro, Business, Enterprise, Education, and Healthcare plans, which provide incremental features and functionality, such as different participant limits, administrative controls, and reporting. For Zoom Phone, plans include Zoom Phone Pro, which provides extension-to-extension calling or can be used with the Bring Your Own Carrier model wherein the customer connects Zoom Phone to an existing carrier. We also offer Regional Unlimited and Regional Metered calling plans in three specific markets (United States/Canada, United Kingdom/Ireland, and Australia/New Zealand). In addition, we introduced the Global Select plan in August 2020, which allows customers to select from local numbers and domestic calling in more than 45 countries and territories where Zoom has local public switched telephone network ("PSTN") coverage. In addition, the Zoom United plan launched in December 2020 provides a single license for customers to purchase Zoom Phone, Meetings and chat capabilities as a bundled offering. Our revenue was $1,050.8 million and $777.2 million for the three months ended October 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, representing period-over-period growth of 35%. We had net income of $340.4 million and $198.6 million for the three months ended October 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Our revenue was $3,028.5 million and $1,768.9 million for the nine months ended October 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, representing period-over-period growth of 71%. We had net income of $885.0 million and $411.7 million for the nine months ended October 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Net cash provided by operating activities was $1,395.9 million and $1,071.8 million for the nine months ended October 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic, affecting many countries around the world. Governments have instituted lockdown or other similar measures to slow infection rates. Many organizations have resorted to mandating employees to work from home, which has resulted in these organizations seeking out video communication solutions like ours to keep employees as productive as possible, even while working from home. Schools, colleges, and universities globally have also closed as a result of this pandemic. Many of these institutions are utilizing our platform to provide remote instruction to their students. To help teachers and students navigate this unprecedented situation, we have temporarily removed the 40-minute time limit for meetings with more than two endpoints from our free Basic accounts for more than 125,000 K-12 domains worldwide. While we have experienced a significant increase in paid hosts and revenue due to the pandemic, the aforementioned factors have also driven increased usage of our services and have required us to expand our network, data storage, and processing capacity, both in our own co-located data centers as well as through third-party cloud hosting, which has resulted, and is continuing to result, in an increase in our operating costs. Furthermore, a significant portion of the increase in usage of our platform is attributable to free Basic accounts and our removal of the time limit for school domains, which do not generate                                          25 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------   Table of Contents any revenue, but still require us to incur these additional operating costs to expand our capacity. Therefore, the recent increase in usage of our platform has adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, our gross margin. In addition, there is no assurance that we will experience an increase in paid hosts or that new or existing users will continue to utilize our service after the COVID-19 pandemic has tapered globally. Moreover, the tapering of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly as vaccines become widely available and distributed, may result in a decline in paid hosts and users once individuals are no longer working or attending school from home. Key Factors Affecting Our Performance Acquiring New Customers We are focused on continuing to grow the number of customers that use our platform. Our operating results and growth prospects will depend, in part, on our ability to attract new customers. While we believe there is a significant market opportunity that our platform addresses, it is difficult to predict customer adoption rates or the future growth rate and size of the market for our platform. We will need to continue to invest in sales and marketing in order to address this opportunity by hiring, developing, and retaining talented sales personnel who are able to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time. Expansion of Zoom Across Existing Customers We believe that there is a large opportunity for growth with many of our existing customers. Many customers have increased the size of their subscriptions as they have expanded their use of our platform across their operations. Some of our larger enterprise customers start with a deployment of Zoom Meetings with one team, location, or geography, before rolling out our platform throughout their organization. Several of our largest customers have deployed our platform globally to their entire workforce following smaller initial deployments. This expansion in the use of our platform also provides us with opportunities to market and sell additional products to our customers, such as Zoom Phone, Zoom HaaS, Zoom for Home, Zoom Rooms at each office location, Developer Platform solutions, Zoom Events, and Zoom Video Webinars. In order for us to address this opportunity to expand the use of our products with our existing customers, we will need to maintain the reliability of our platform and produce new features and functionality that are responsive to our customers' requirements for enterprise-grade solutions. We quantify our expansion across existing customers through our net dollar expansion rate. Our net dollar expansion rate includes the increase in user adoption within our customers, as our subscription revenue is primarily driven by the number of paid hosts within a customer and the purchase of additional products, and compares our subscription revenue from the same set of customers across comparable periods. We calculate net dollar expansion rate as of a period end by starting with the annual recurring revenue ("ARR") from all customers with more than 10 employees as of 12 months prior ("Prior Period ARR"). We define ARR as the annualized revenue run rate of subscription agreements from all customers at a point in time. We calculate ARR by taking the monthly recurring revenue ("MRR") and multiplying it by 12. MRR is defined as the recurring revenue run-rate of subscription agreements from all customers for the last month of the period, including revenue from monthly subscribers who have not provided any indication that they intend to cancel their subscriptions. We then calculate the ARR from these customers as of the current period end ("Current Period ARR"), which includes any upsells, contraction, and attrition. We divide the Current Period ARR by the Prior Period ARR to arrive at the net dollar expansion rate. For the trailing 12-months calculation, we take an average of the net dollar expansion rate over the trailing 12 months. Our net dollar expansion rate may fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including the level of penetration within our customer base, expansion of products and features, and our ability to retain our customers. Our trailing 12-month net dollar expansion rate for customers with more than 10 employees was greater than 130% as of October 31, 2021 and 2020. Innovation and Expansion of Our Platform We continue to invest resources to enhance the capabilities of our platform. For example, we have recently introduced a number of product enhancements, including new features for Zoom Phone, Zoom Meetings, and Zoom Video Webinars. We addressed new work-from-home realities with the introduction of Zoom for Home, a solution designed for the home office that combines Zoom software enhancements with compatible hardware. We also expanded our geographic footprint with Zoom Phone availability to a total of 46 countries and territories as of October 31, 2021. Third-party developers are also a key component of our strategy for platform innovation to make it easier for customers and developers to extend our product portfolio with new functionalities. We believe that as more developers and other third parties use our platform to integrate major third-party applications, we will become the ubiquitous platform for communications. We will need to expend additional resources to continue introducing new products, features, and functionality, and supporting the efforts of third parties to enhance the value of our platform with their own applications.                                          26 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------   Table of Contents An end-to-end encryption ("E2EE") option is available to free and paid Zoom customers globally who host meetings with up to 200 participants. Zoom's E2EE uses the same AES-256-GCM encryption that secures Zoom meetings by default, but with Zoom's new E2EE, the meeting host generates encryption keys and uses public key cryptography to distribute these keys to the other meeting participants. In October 2020, we introduced two additions to the Zoom platform: OnZoom and Zoom Apps. OnZoom is an online event platform for Zoom users to create and host free, paid, and fundraising events. OnZoom is currently offered as a public beta for U.S. users to attend online events. Zoom Apps, which became generally available in July 2021, is a new type of in-product integration that lets users bring their apps into Zoom Meetings to make their meetings more efficient and engaging. In July 2021, we introduced Zoom Events. Zoom Events provides everything users need to build, host, and manage a virtual or hybrid event. Its capabilities include branded event hubs, multi-session events, chat-based attendee networking, and customizable ticketing and registration. In September 2021, we introduced Zoom Events Conference, an upcoming event type that will allow hosts to organize multi-track and multi-day events. Additionally, we announced new security features and end-to-end encryption for Zoom Phone. International Expansion Our platform addresses the communications needs of users worldwide, and we see international expansion as a major opportunity. Our revenue from the rest of world (APAC and EMEA) represented 33% and 31% of our total revenue for the three months ended October 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and 33% and 30% of our total revenue for the nine months ended October 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. We plan to add local sales support in further select international markets over time. We use strategic partners and resellers to sell in certain international markets where we have limited or no direct sales presence. While we believe global demand for our platform will continue to increase as international market awareness of Zoom grows, our ability to conduct our operations internationally will require considerable management attention and resources, and is subject to the particular challenges of supporting a rapidly growing business in an environment of multiple languages, cultures, customs, legal and regulatory systems, alternative dispute systems, and commercial markets. Key Business Metrics We review the following key business metrics to measure our performance, identify trends, formulate financial projections, and make strategic decisions. Customers with More Than 10 Employees Increasing awareness of our platform and its broad range of capabilities has enabled us to substantially expand our customer base, which includes organizations of all sizes across industries. We define a customer as a separate and distinct buying entity, which can be a single paid host or an organization of any size (including a distinct unit of an organization) that has multiple paid hosts. To better distinguish business customers from our broader customer base, we review the number of customers with more than 10 employees. As of October 31, 2021 and 2020, we had approximately 512,100 and 433,700 customers, respectively, with more than 10 employees. When disclosing the number of customers, we round down to the nearest hundred. Customers Contributing More Than $100,000 of Trailing 12 Months Revenue We focus on growing the number of customers that contribute more than $100,000 of trailing 12 months revenue as it is a measure of our ability to scale with our customers and attract larger organizations to Zoom. Revenue from these customers represented 22% and 18% of total revenue for the three months ended October 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and 21% and 20% of total revenue for the nine months ended October 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. As of October 31, 2021 and 2020, we had 2,507 and 1,289 customers, respectively, that contributed more than $100,000 of trailing 12 months revenue, demonstrating our rapid penetration of larger organizations, including enterprises. These customers are a subset of the customers with more than 10 employees. Non-GAAP Financial Measure In addition to our results determined in accordance with GAAP, we believe that free cash flow ("FCF"), a non-GAAP financial measure, is useful in evaluating our liquidity. Free Cash Flow We define FCF as GAAP net cash provided by operating activities less purchases of property and equipment. We believe that FCF is a useful indicator of liquidity that provides information to management and investors about the amount of cash generated from our operations that, after investments in property and equipment, can be used for future growth. FCF is                                          27 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------   Table of Contents presented for supplemental informational purposes only, has limitations as an analytical tool, and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of other GAAP financial measures, such as net cash provided by operating activities. It is important to note that other companies, including companies in our industry, may not use this metric, may calculate this metric differently, or may use other financial measures to evaluate their liquidity, all of which could reduce the usefulness of this non-GAAP metric as a comparative measure. The following table presents a summary of our cash flows for the periods presented and a reconciliation of FCF to net cash provided by operating activities, the most directly comparable financial measure calculated in accordance with GAAP:                                                    Nine Months Ended October 31,                                                        2021                  2020                                                            (in thousands) Net cash provided by operating activities    $      1,395,870            $ 

1,071,781

  Less: purchases of property and equipment            (111,816)              

(58,517)

  Free cash flow (non-GAAP)                    $      1,284,054            $ 

1,013,264

 Net cash used in investing activities        $     (2,367,098)           $  

(673,377)

 Net cash provided by financing activities    $         20,885            $  

296,242

    Components of Results of Operations Revenue We derive our revenue from subscription agreements with customers for access to our communications platform. Our customers generally do not have the ability to take possession of our software. We also provide services, which include professional services, consulting services, and online event hosting, which are generally considered distinct from the access to our communications platform. Cost of Revenue Cost of revenue primarily consists of costs related to hosting our communications platform and providing general operating support services to our customers. These costs are related to our co-located data centers, third-party cloud hosting, integrated third-party PSTN services, personnel-related expenses, amortization of capitalized software development and acquired intangible assets, royalty payments, and allocated overhead. We expect our cost of revenue to increase in absolute dollars for the foreseeable future, as we expand our data center capacity due to increased usage stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the cost of revenue as a percentage of revenue may decrease over time as we scale our data centers to accommodate usage from our increased customer base and as the ratio of free to paid users varies. Operating Expenses Research and Development Research and development expenses primarily consist of personnel-related expenses directly associated with our research and development organization, depreciation of equipment used in research and development, and allocated overhead. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. We plan to increase our investment in research and development for the foreseeable future, primarily by increasing research and development headcount, as we focus on further developing our platform, enhancing its use cases, and strengthening security and privacy. As a result, we expect our research and development expenses to increase both in absolute dollars and as a percentage of revenue for the rest of the current fiscal year. Sales and Marketing Sales and marketing expenses primarily consist of personnel-related expenses directly associated with our sales and marketing organization. Other sales and marketing expenses include advertising and promotional events to promote our brand, such as awareness programs, digital programs, public relations, tradeshows, and our user conference, Zoomtopia, and allocated overhead. Sales and marketing expenses also include credit card processing fees related to sales and amortization of deferred contract acquisition costs. We plan to increase our investment in sales and marketing over the foreseeable future, primarily by increasing the headcount of our direct sales force and marketing investments in demand generation. As a result, we expect our                                          28 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------   Table of Contents sales and marketing expenses to increase both in absolute dollars and as a percentage of revenue for the rest of the current fiscal year. General and Administrative General and administrative expenses primarily consist of personnel-related expenses associated with our finance and legal organizations; professional fees for external legal, accounting, and other consulting services; expected credit losses; insurance; indirect taxes; litigation settlements; and allocated overhead. We expect to increase the size of our general and administrative function to support the growth and complexity of our business. As a result, we expect our general and administrative expenses to increase both in absolute dollars and as a percentage of revenue for the rest of the current fiscal year. Gains on Strategic Investments, Net Gains on strategic investments, net consist primarily of remeasurement gains or losses on our equity investments. Interest Income and Other, Net Interest income and other, net consists primarily of interest income and net accretion on our marketable securities and effect of changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Provision for Income Taxes Provision for income taxes consists primarily of income taxes related to federal, state, and foreign jurisdictions where we conduct business. Results of Operations The following tables set forth selected condensed consolidated statements of operations data and such data as a percentage of revenue for each of the periods indicated:                                             Three Months Ended October 31,                 Nine Months Ended October 31,                                                2021                   2020                   2021                    2020                                                                             (in thousands) Revenue                                $       1,050,756          $  777,196          $      3,028,488          $ 1,768,883 Cost of revenue (1)                              270,957             258,727                   797,207              554,705 Gross profit                                     779,799             518,469                 2,231,281            1,214,178 Operating expenses: Research and development (1)                      98,508              42,582                   245,994              111,705 Sales and marketing (1)                          293,698             190,157                   810,544              470,886 General and administrative (1)                    96,736              93,488                   362,971              227,856 Total operating expenses                         488,942             326,227                 1,419,509              810,447 Income from operations                           290,857             192,242                   811,772              403,731 Gains on strategic investments, net              122,421                   -                   154,497                2,538 Interest income and other, net                    (2,995)              1,779                    (3,171)               7,112 Income before provision for (benefit from) income taxes                               410,283             194,021                   963,098              413,381 Provision for (benefit from) income taxes                                             69,900              (4,621)                   78,100                1,675 Net income                             $         340,383          $  198,642          $        884,998          $   411,706  (1) Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows: Cost of revenue                        $          17,206          $   

11,287 $ 46,050 $ 22,263 Research and development

                          27,879              16,035                    71,615               31,269 Sales and marketing                               54,220              46,716                   156,888               96,237 General and administrative                        15,496              19,887                    41,359               29,788 

Total stock-based compensation expense $ 114,801 $ 93,925 $ 315,912 $ 179,557

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   Table of Contents                                              Three Months Ended October 31,                 Nine Months Ended October 31,                                              2021                    2020                   2021                    2020                                                                      (as a percentage of revenue) Revenue                                           100  %                 100  %                  100  %                 100  % Cost of revenue                                    26                     33                      26                     31 Gross profit                                       74                     67                      74                     69 Operating expenses: Research and development                            9                      6                       8                      6 Sales and marketing                                28                     24                      27                     27 General and administrative                          9                     12                      12                     13 Total operating expenses                           46                     42                      47                     46 Income from operations                             28                     25                      27                     23 Gains on strategic investments, net                11                      -                       5                      0 Interest income and other, net                      0                      0                       0                      0 Income before provision for (benefit from) income taxes                                 39                     25                      32                     23 Provision for (benefit from) income taxes                                               7                     (1)                      3                      0 Net income                                         32  %                  26  %                   29  %                  23  %   Comparison of the Three Months Ended October 31, 2021 and 2020 Revenue                          Three Months Ended October 31,                         2021                   2020         % Change                            (in thousands) Revenue     $       1,050,756               $ 777,196           35  %   Revenue for the three months ended October 31, 2021 increased by $273.6 million, or 35%, compared to the three months ended October 31, 2020. The increase in revenue was due to a combination of subscription services provided to new customers, which accounted for approximately 74% of the increase, and subscription services provided to existing customers, which accounted for approximately 26% of the increase. Cost of Revenue                                Three Months Ended October 31,                          2021                        2020         % Change                                  (in thousands) Cost of revenue   $      270,957                 $ 258,727             5  % Gross profit             779,799                   518,469            50  % Gross margin                  74   %                    67  %   Cost of revenue for the three months ended October 31, 2021 increased by $12.2 million, or 5%, compared to the three months ended October 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to an increase of $21.5 million in personnel-related expenses, which includes an increase of $5.9 million in stock-based compensation expense, mainly driven by additional headcount, and an increase of $6.8 million related to subscription to software-based services; partially offset by a decrease of $20.4 million in costs mainly related to third-party cloud hosting. Gross margin increased to 74% for the three months ended October 31, 2021 from 67% for the three months ended October 31, 2020. The increase in gross margin was mainly due to increased efficiencies as we expanded our data center capacity to accommodate the increased usage as well as lower rates from third-party cloud hosting providers.                                          30
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  Table of Contents Operating Expenses Research and Development                                          Three Months Ended October 31,                                         2021                    2020        % Change                                            (in thousands) Research and development   $        98,508                   $ 42,582          131  %   Research and development expense for the three months ended October 31, 2021 increased by $55.9 million, or 131%, compared to the three months ended October 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to higher personnel-related expenses of $47.0 million, which includes a $11.8 million increase in stock-based compensation expense, mainly driven by additional headcount. Sales and Marketing                                      Three Months Ended October 31,                                     2021                   2020         % Change                                        (in thousands) Sales and marketing     $       293,698                 $ 190,157           54  %   Sales and marketing expense for the three months ended October 31, 2021 increased by $103.5 million, or 54%, compared to the three months ended October 31, 2020. The increase in sales and marketing expense was primarily due to higher personnel-related expenses of $53.5 million, mainly driven by additional headcount in our sales force to support increased demand, which includes a $7.5 million increase in stock-based compensation expense and a $15.8 million increase in amortization of deferred contract acquisition costs driven by our increase in revenue. The remaining increase was primarily due to an increase of $39.0 million in marketing and sales event-related costs, mainly due to an increase in digital programs. General and Administrative                                             Three Months Ended October 31,                                            2021                    2020        % Change                                               (in thousands) General and administrative    $        96,736                   $ 93,488            3  %   General and administrative expense for the three months ended October 31, 2021 increased by $3.2 million, or 3%, compared to the three months ended October 31, 2020. The increase in general and administrative expense was primarily due to an increase of $7.7 million in personnel-related expenses, mainly driven by additional headcount, an increase of $4.4 million related to subscription to software-based services, and an increase of $2.4 million in professional services consisting primarily of legal and other professional service fees, partially offset by a decrease of $11.8 million related to a contingent liability for sales and other indirect tax. Gains on Strategic Investments, Net                                                                     Three 

Months Ended October 31,

                                                           2021                2020                 % Change                                                                  (in thousands) Gains on strategic investments, net                   $   122,421          $        -                      100  %   Gains on strategic investments, net recognized during the three months ended October 31, 2021 was driven by $72.8 million unrealized gains recognized on our publicly traded equity securities and $49.6 million unrealized gains recognized on our privately held equity securities.                                          31 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------   Table of Contents Interest Income and Other, Net                                                Three Months Ended October 31,                                                2021                    2020        % Change                                                  (in thousands) Interest income and other, net   $         (2,995)                   $ 

1,779 (268) %

Interest income and other, net for the three months ended October 31, 2021 decreased by $4.8 million, or 268%, compared to the three months ended October 31, 2020. The decrease was primarily attributable to a loss of $4.6 million related to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Provision for (Benefit from) Income Taxes

                                                                     Three 

Months Ended October 31,

                                                           2021                  2020                % Change                                                                 (in thousands) Provision for (benefit from) income taxes           $        69,900          $  (4,621)                  (1,613) %   Provision for income taxes for the three months ended October 31, 2021 increased by $74.5 million, or 1,613%, compared to the three months ended October 31, 2020. The change was primarily due to an increase in global income, certain elections and accounting method changes creating additional book-tax differences, as well as a decrease in stock-based compensation for tax purposes. Our calculation of income tax expense is dependent in part on forecasts of full-year results. Comparison of the Nine Months Ended October 31, 2021 and 2020 Revenue                         Nine Months Ended October 31,                      2021                  2020          % Change                           (in thousands) Revenue     $     3,028,488            $ 1,768,883           71  %   Revenue for the nine months ended October 31, 2021 increased by $1,259.6 million, or 71%, compared to the nine months ended October 31, 2020. The increase in revenue was due to a combination of subscription services provided to existing customers, which accounted for approximately 60% of the increase, and subscription services provided to new customers, which accounted for approximately 40% of the increase. Cost of Revenue                                 Nine Months Ended October 31,                          2021                       2020          % Change                                  (in thousands) Cost of revenue   $      797,207                $  554,705            44  % Gross profit           2,231,281                 1,214,178            84  % Gross margin                  74   %                    69  %   Cost of revenue for the nine months ended October 31, 2021 increased by $242.5 million, or 44%, compared to the nine months ended October 31, 2020. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have temporarily removed the 40-minute time limit for meetings with more than two endpoints from our free Basic accounts for more than 125,000 K-12 school domains worldwide. We also continued to experience an increase in usage from paid users as more companies utilized our platform to allow their employees to work remotely. This increase in usage resulted in an increase of $133.3 million in costs related to third-party cloud hosting and our co-located data centers to support the increase in customers and expanded use of our communications platform by existing and new customers. The remaining increase was primarily due to an increase of $71.2 million in personnel-related expenses, which includes an increase of $23.8 million in stock-based compensation expense, mainly driven by additional headcount; an increase of $17.5 million related to subscription to software-based services; and an increase of $8.8 million in professional services, mainly for customer support.                                          32
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------   Table of Contents Gross margin increased to 74% for the nine months ended October 31, 2021 from 69% for the nine months ended October 31, 2020. The increase in gross margin was mainly due to increased efficiencies as we expanded our data center capacity to accommodate the increased usage as well as lower rates from third-party cloud hosting providers. Operating Expenses Research and Development                                         Nine Months Ended October 31,                                       2021                   2020         % Change                                           (in thousands) Research and development   $       245,994                $ 111,705          120  %   Research and development expense for the nine months ended October 31, 2021 increased by $134.3 million, or 120%, compared to the nine months ended October 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to higher personnel-related expenses of $123.2 million, which includes a $40.3 million increase in stock-based compensation expense, mainly driven by additional headcount, and an increase of $5.4 million related to subscription to software-based services. Sales and Marketing                                      Nine Months Ended October 31,                                    2021                   2020         % Change                                        (in thousands) Sales and marketing     $       810,544                $ 470,886           72  %   Sales and marketing expense for the nine months ended October 31, 2021 increased by $339.7 million, or 72%, compared to the nine months ended October 31, 2020. The increase in sales and marketing expense was primarily due to higher personnel-related expenses of $226.7 million, mainly driven by additional headcount in our sales force to support increased demand, which includes a $60.7 million increase in stock-based compensation expense and a $54.4 million increase in amortization of deferred contract acquisition costs. The remaining increase was primarily due to an increase of $70.6 million in marketing and sales event-related costs, mainly due to an increase in digital and social media programs, an increase of $18.8 million in credit card processing fees as a result of increased online payments, and an increase of $5.0 million in professional service fees. General and Administrative                                            Nine Months Ended October 31,                                          2021                   2020         % Change                                              (in thousands) General and administrative    $       362,971                $ 227,856           59  %   General and administrative expense for the nine months ended October 31, 2021 increased by $135.1 million, or 59%, compared to the nine months ended October 31, 2020. The increase in general and administrative expense was primarily due to an increase of $66.9 million in litigation settlement expense, net of amounts estimated to be covered by insurance; an increase of $50.4 million in personnel-related expenses, which includes a $11.6 million increase in stock-based compensation expense, mainly driven by additional headcount; an increase of $37.6 million in professional services consisting primarily of legal and other professional service fees; an increase of $22.6 million related to subscription to software-based services; and an increase of $6.3 million in expenses related to mergers and strategic investments; partially offset by a decrease of $25.2 million in charitable donations related mainly to shares transferred to a donor advised fund and a decrease of $22.1 million related to a contingent liability for sales and other indirect tax. Gains on Strategic Investments, Net                                                      Nine Months Ended October 31,                                                     2021                   2020        % Change                                                       (in thousands) Gains on strategic investments, net    $        154,497                  $ 2,538        5,987  %                                            33
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------   Table of Contents Gains on strategic investments, net recognized during the nine months ended October 31, 2021 was driven by $104.9 million unrealized gains recognized on our publicly traded equity securities and $49.6 million unrealized gains recognized on our privately held equity securities, while we had gains on strategic investments, net of $2.5 million recognized during the nine months ended October 31, 2020. Interest Income and Other, Net                                                Nine Months Ended October 31,                                               2021                   2020        % Change                                                 (in thousands) Interest income and other, net   $        (3,171)                  $ 7,112  

(145) %

   Interest income and other, net for the nine months ended October 31, 2021 decreased by $10.3 million, or 145%, compared to the nine months ended October 31, 2020. The decrease was primarily attributable to a loss of $10.2 million related to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Provision for Income Taxes                                             Nine Months Ended October 31,                                            2021                   2020        % Change                                              (in thousands) Provision for income taxes    $        78,100                   $ 1,675        4,563  %   Provision for income taxes for the nine months ended October 31, 2021 increased by $76.4 million, or 4,563%, compared to the nine months ended October 31, 2020. The change was primarily due to an increase in global income, certain elections and accounting method changes creating additional book-tax differences, as well as a decrease in stock-based compensation for tax purposes. Our calculation of income tax expense is dependent in part on forecasts of full-year results. Liquidity and Capital Resources As of October 31, 2021, our principal sources of liquidity were cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities of $5.4 billion, which were held for working capital purposes and for investment in growth opportunities. Our marketable securities generally consist of high-grade commercial paper, corporate bonds, agency bonds, corporate and other debt securities, U.S. government agency securities, and treasury bills. We have financed our operations primarily through income from operations and sales of equity securities. Cash from operations could also be affected by various risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including timing of cash collections from our customers and other risks detailed in the section titled "Risk Factors." However, based on our current business plan and revenue prospects, we believe our existing cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities, together with net cash provided by operations, will be sufficient to meet our needs for at least the next 12 months and allow us to capitalize on growth opportunities. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including our revenue growth rate, subscription renewal activity, billing frequency, the timing and extent of spending to support further sales and marketing and research and development efforts, as well as expenses associated with our international expansion, and the timing and extent of additional capital expenditures to invest in existing and new office spaces as well as data center infrastructure. We may, in the future, enter into arrangements to acquire or invest in complementary businesses, services, and technologies, including intellectual property rights. We may choose or be required to seek additional equity or debt financing. In the event that additional financing is required from outside sources, we may not be able to raise it on terms acceptable to us or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital when desired, our business, results of operations, and financial condition would be materially and adversely affected.                                          34 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------   Table of Contents Cash Flows The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods presented:                                                    Nine Months Ended October 31,                                                        2021                  2020                                                            (in thousands) Net cash provided by operating activities    $      1,395,870            $ 

1,071,781

 Net cash used in investing activities        $     (2,367,098)           $  

(673,377)

 Net cash provided by financing activities    $         20,885            $  

296,242

   Operating Activities Our largest source of operating cash is cash collections from our customers for subscriptions to our platform. Our primary uses of cash from operating activities are for employee-related expenditures, costs related to hosting our platform, and marketing expenses. Net cash provided by operating activities is affected by our net income adjusted for certain non-cash items, such as stock-based compensation expense and depreciation and amortization expenses, as well as the effect of changes in operating assets and liabilities. Net cash provided by operating activities was $1,395.9 million for the nine months ended October 31, 2021, compared to $1,071.8 million for the nine months ended October 31, 2020. The increase in operating cash flow was due to an increase in net income of $473.3 million; and an increase in non-cash adjustments of $58.5 million, which is primarily a result of higher stock-based compensation expense and higher deferred contract acquisition cost amortization due to an increase in capitalized commissions as we continue to grow and expand our customer base, offset by higher gains on strategic investments, net; offset by the negative impact from changes in operating assets and liabilities of $207.7 million. Investing Activities Net cash used in investing activities of $2,367.1 million for the nine months ended October 31, 2021 was due to net purchases of marketable securities of $2,117.2 million, purchases of strategic investments of $126.3 million, purchases of property and equipment of $111.8 million, purchases of intangible assets of $9.6 million, and cash paid for acquisition, net of cash acquired, of $2.1 million. Net cash used in investing activities of $673.4 million for the nine months ended October 31, 2020 was primarily due to net purchases of marketable securities of $572.6 million, purchases of property and equipment of $58.5 million, cash paid for acquisition, net of cash acquired, of $26.5 million, and purchases of strategic investments of $13.0 million. Financing Activities Net cash provided by financing activities of $20.9 million for the nine months ended October 31, 2021 was primarily due to proceeds from issuance of common stock under our ESPP of $37.8 million and proceeds from the exercise of stock options of $11.0 million, offset by proceeds from employee equity transactions remitted to employees and tax authorities, net, of $28.3 million. Net cash provided by financing activities of $296.2 million for the nine months ended October 31, 2020 was due to proceeds from employee equity transactions to be remitted to employees and tax authorities, net, of $251.6 million, proceeds from the exercise of stock options of $23.8 million, and proceeds from issuance of common stock under our ESPP of $20.8 million. Commitments and Contractual Obligations There have been no material changes to our contractual obligations and commitments from those disclosed in our Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended January 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 18, 2021. Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements as defined in Item 303(a)(4)(ii) of Regulation S-K promulgated by the SEC under the Securities Act.                                          35

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   Table of Contents Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates Critical accounting policies and estimates are those accounting policies and estimates that are both most important to the portrayal of our net assets and results of operations and require the most difficult, subjective, or complex judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. These estimates are developed based on historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Critical accounting estimates are accounting estimates where the nature of the estimates is material due to the levels of subjectivity and judgment necessary to account for highly uncertain matters or the susceptibility of such matters to change, and the impact of the estimates on financial condition or operating performance is material. There have been no material changes to our critical accounting policies and estimates as compared to the critical accounting policies and estimates described in our Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended January 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 18, 2021. 

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